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In the European Union, what are the ingredients (as listed on the labels of packaged food products) where it’s uncertain whether they are vegan or non-vegan?

So I’m not asking about ingredients that are always/never vegan, but only about those where you would have to ask the producer to know.

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My answer comes from this French source. If you have an English one, feel free to add it in the comment.

  • Refined sugar: some brand use bone powder to whiten and purify sugar.

  • Gelatin: can be from pork or fruit.

  • Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, etc...): one of the step in creating an alcoholic beverage involves using finings (either to improve clarity or adjust flavor or aroma). The fining can use gelatin, casein, albumen, or isinglass which aren't vegan. However, some fining use algae which is vegan.

  • Vitamin D in conditioned juices: vitamin D can be from fish oil, animal gelatin, sheep wool fibers (all not vegan) or can be from synthesis (vegan).

  • Natural aroma of vanilla (or raspberry or strawberry): can be from mushroom or beaver gland (castoreum). Note that "natural extract of vanilla" are always from vanilla.

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